Two years ago, the bipartisan Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress recommended that Congress reintroduce a new cleaned up process for including Community-Focused Grants in legislation. The more common name for these are earmarks. When the House Republican Conference convenes to set its conference rules for the 118th Congress, it should allow the new reformed process to continue.
By not directing federal funds to their districts, Members of Congress shirk one of the primary responsibilities given to them by the Constitution: the power of the purse. Congress is a legislative body. It is also the branch of government closest to the people and therefore should be the most familiar with funding needs.
Readers of the Federalist Papers know that “it is particularly essential that the branch of [government] under consideration [the House] should have an immediate dependence on, and an intimate sympathy with, the people.” As the Federal representatives closest to the people whom they represent, Members of the House are best positioned as the ultimate authorities to know how federal dollars will be most useful and beneficial in their districts.
In other words, it’s a Member’s job to know their district better than the bureaucrats in the Executive Branch. This is particularly true in rural districts. Smaller towns and cities generally do not have the budget to hire professional grant writers like large cities such as San Francisco, New York City, and Los Angeles. This means districts represented by Republican Members could be in a competitive disadvantage without earmarks. Also, in states controlled by Democratic governors, the projects supported by a Republican Member may be ignored when distributing money approved by Congress.
Given our divided government, local community earmarks may very well be the only way some of our new freshmen are able to deliver for their constituents and get legislation wins passed into law.
The new earmark program eliminates the possibility of abuses like there were in the past. Now that Republicans will control committees in the majority, there is a double fail-safe over abusive spending. For Republicans, it comes down to who should make important spending decisions in their own district: the Member or a Biden Administration bureaucrat.
Keep in mind, that the new earmark provisions do not allow earmarks that would increase spending above the levels approved in the budget resolution or other legislation. Budget reductions that a Republican Congress approves cannot be overridden.
Perhaps a forgotten benefit is that earmarks are also an important way to restore civility in Congress, since it allows legislators in the minority party to participate in the legislative process. When Members of the minority are excluded from the amendment process, their constituents’ most urgent priorities go unrepresented. Opening up the legislative process so that all members can direct spending in their own districts and accomplish important policy goals gives both the majority and minority incentives to pass authorization and appropriation bills with healthy bipartisan margins. Heaven knows, the Republican priorities in appropriation bills will clash with Senate Democrats and the Biden Administration. Gaining the support of some Democrats in the House that want to deliver programs for their own districts will be a valuable tool for those negotiating appropriation and authorization bills.
Earmarks fell into disrepute at the same time the budget process broke down. Congress stopped the authorization of most non-defense spending, where earmarks were generally included. As a result, individual Members became ad hoc authorizers directly attaching spending requests to appropriation bills. Some earmarks were added to the bills, but many were only referred to in report language. The process broke down to a free-for-all with every legislator for him- or herself.
Restoring earmarks can be a major incentive to restore the broken authorization and budget processes. Constituents’ clearly defined priorities would be met and Members would have political incentives to pass bills.
The proper way to reinstate earmarks that eliminates partisan motives would continue to adhere to the following guidelines:
- Make member-directed spending proposals an explicit part of appropriation and authorization bills. This is the most transparent and legitimate way to prevent corruption and backroom deals. If constituents disagree with the member’s choices, that Member will most likely find him- or herself voted out of office. No more hiding behind bureaucrats’ skirts.
- Require that earmarks carry the force of law so that the administration cannot arbitrarily override them. President George W. Bush signed an Executive order directing agencies to ignore earmarks that were not codified into law. That was a good step on earmark reform and it would be good to see the Biden administration uphold this order.
- There must be transparency and public disclosure. Gone are the days when lawmakers can shift money around behind closed doors. If a member seeks an earmark, she or he should put that request into the Congressional Record or submit a publicly disclosed written request to the appropriate committee and request it along with detailed information about why the money is needed and how it will used. If a Member is not willing to publicly stand behind an earmark, that request should not pass.
Earmarks can be a valuable budgeting tool but more importantly, they are a constitutional responsibility of each Member of Congress. Congress is given the power to authorize and appropriate money. The Executive Branch cannot spend one penny unless Congress allows it. As is obvious to anyone paying attention, when every decision in Congress is made along partisan fault lines the entire system breaks down. For new lawmakers and those in the minority, earmarks can give them accomplishments to take back home, which is in the interest of leadership for both parties, regardless of who holds the gavel.
There are significant reforms needed regarding how Congress does its work. Restoring the ability of members of Congress to direct spending in their own districts is an important step toward incentivizing budget reform and making Congress less polarized.
Mark Strand is president of the Congressional Institute.
The Sausage Factory blog is a Congressional Institute project dedicated to explaining parliamentary procedure, Congressional politics, and other issues pertaining to the Legislative Branch.